Preface


This document contains useful information for embedded software developers who wish to migrate their code from Renesas tools to Cyberthor Studios tools (and vice versa) for H8 targets. At present, this guide contains the following:


   Compiler Options.
   Compiler Directives.
   Intrinsic Functions.
   C/Math Library Functions.
   Assembly Programming.
   Inline Assembly Language.


Please note that this is an intermediate guide, which will be improved and enhanced periodically.

Please do not hesitate to send any of your suggestions or ideas. You may log in your suggestions on our web site https://gcc-renesas.com/.

You will need to register first, after which you can either add a new support query at the following link: https://gcc-renesas.com/my-support-requests/tickettrackingsystem/addticket, or ask a question here: https://gcc-renesas.com/forum/ask/.

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Revision History:

Version Number Date Overview of changes
1.0 23-August-2004 Created.
2.0 31-August-2004 Added assembler directives.
3.0 31-August-2004 GNU intrinsic functions dadd(), dsub(), mac(), rotlw() are modified.
Added .align assembler directive.
4.0 31-August-2004 GNU intrinsic functions set_imask_ccr(), set_imask_exr() are modified.
5.0 07-March-2008 'Using inline assembly in GNU' is added.
6.0 30-September-2008 Modified 'Using inline assembly in GNU' section to add ‘-h-tick-hex’ option.
7.0 29-January-2009 Added 'extern' keyword for GNU intrinsic functions.
Modified logic of 'set_imask_ccr' function.
8.0 20-October-2016 Added new responsive template

Compiler Options


Renesas Compiler Options

Equivalent GCC compiler options
 

-include = <path name>[,…]
Include paths.

-I<path>
 

-preinclude = <file name>[,...]
Includes the specified files at the head of compiled files.

-include <file>
 

-define = <sub> [,…]
<sub>: <macro name> [ = <string literal>]

Defines <string literal> as <macro name>

-D<macro>
 

-nomessage [ = <error code> [- <error code>] [,…] ]
Specifies whether to output information-level messages.

-w
 

-preprocessor [= <file name>]
Preprocessor to named file.

-E -o filename
 

-object [= <object file name>]
Set object filename.

-o filename
 

-Code=Asmcode -object=<file name>]
Assembly output to named file.

-S filename
 

-debug
Generate debug information.

-g[level]
 

-string = { Const | Data }
Outputs string literal to constant or data sections.

-fwritable-strings
 

-template = { None | Static | Used | All | AUto }
Specifies the condition to generate template instances.

-fno-implicit-templates
 

-List [= <file name>]
Assembly output to prefixed List filename.

-Wa, -al=file
 

-show=<sub>[,...]
<sub>: {source | nosource |
object | noobject |
statistics | nostatistics |
allocation | noallocation |
expansion | noexpansion |
width = <numeric value> |
length = <numeric value> |
tab = { 4 | 8 } }

Specifies the contents and format of the list output by the compiler, and the cancellation of list output.

-a[sub-option...]

Sub-options [default hls]:
c omit false conditionals
d omit debugging directives
h include high-level source
l include assembly
m include macro expansions
n omit forms processing
s include symbols
=FILE list to FILE (must be last sub-option)

 

-speed = <sub> [,…]
<sub>:{register shiift |
loop [ = { 1 | 2 } ] | switch |
inline[=<numeric value>] |
struct | expression}

Speed optimization

-O[1-3]
 

-optimize = { 0 | 1 }
Optimize for size.

-Os
 

-comment
Enables nested comments to be written.

-Wcomment
 

-pack
Specifies the boundary alignment of structures, unions, and class members.

-fpack-struct
 

-volatile

When volatile is specified, the compiler does not optimize external variables.

-fvolatile
 

-byteenum
Handles the declared enum data as char data.

-fshort-enums
 

-cmncode
Common subexpression elimination

-fgcse
 

-align
The align option relocates variables so as to reduce space by boundary alignment.

-falign
 

-structreg
Specifies whether structure parameters or return values are allocated to registers or not.

Available by default.

-longreg
Specifies whether 4-byte parameters or return values are allocated to registers or not.

Available by default.

-double=float
Converting double-type values to Float-type values.

-fshort-double
 

-rtti = { ON |OFf }
Controlling runtime type information.

-fno-rtti
 

-exception
Enables the C++ exception processing (try, catch, throw).

-fexceptions
 

-lang = { C | CPp }
Specifies the language of the source program.

-x <language>
 


Options only in GCC:

-fomit-frame-pointer

Register (e) r6 in case of GCC is used as frame pointer. To avoid it from being pushed and popped during a function call, -fomit-frame-pointer option is specified. The Renesas H8 toolchain uses (e) r6 as a frame pointer if the optimization is disabled (-optimize=0)


For more information on the above compiler command line options, please refer to the gcc manual.

Compiler Directives


Renesas Directives Equivalent GNU directive or method
#pragma interrupt (ext_0(vect=8)) 
void ext_0(void) 
{
      p0=6;
}
#define VECT_SECT __attribute__((section (".vects")))
typedef void (*fp) (void);
extern void start (void); /*start function*/
void ext_0() __attribute__ ((interrupt_handler)); 
	/* Interrupt handler function */
VECT_TYPE fp HardwareVectors[] VECT_SECT =
{
      start,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,ext_0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0
}        
void ext_0() 
{
      P0 = 6;
}

 
extern char STK[100];
#pragma interrupt ( f(sp=STK+100) )
      or
_ _interrupt(sp=STK+100) void f(void);
extern char STK[100];
void f () __attribute__ ((interrupt_handler,
		sp_switch ("STK+100")));

 
extern char STK[100];
#pragma interrupt ( g(tn=2) )
      or
_ _interrupt(tn=2) void g(void);
trap_exit
void g() __attribute__ ((interrupt_handler,
		trap_exit(2)));

 
#pragma abs8(c1)
#pragma abs16(i1)
char c1; /* c1 is assigned to $ABS8B */
int i1; /* i1 is assigned to $ABS16B */
const char c1[] __attribute__ ((eightbit_data)); 
const int i1 __attribute__ ((tiny_data));

 
#pragma entry <function name>[<entry specification>]
e.g.
#pragma entry INIT(sp=0x8000)
void INIT()
{
      :
}
Achieved through linker script.
#pragma inline (<function name>[,…])
_ _inline <type specifier> <function name>
inline void foo (const char) __attribute__((always_inline));

 
#pragma pack 1
struct S { int x[2];} __attribute__ ((packed));

 
#pragma pack 2
#pragma unpack
e.g.
#pragma pack 2
struct S1
{
      char a;	/* offset: 0 */
	 	/* gap: 1 byte */
      int b;	/* offset: 2 */
      char c;	/* offset: 4 */
		/* gap: 1 byte */
};
struct S1 {char a; int b; char c;} __attribute__ ((aligned (2)));

 
#pragma global_register(x=R4)
      or
_ _ global_register(R4L) char x;
/* External variable x is allocated to R4 */
You can define a global register variable in GNU C like this:
register int *x asm ("r4");
#pragma stacksize <constant> 
e.g. #pragma stacksize 100 
<Code expansion example>
.SECTION S,STACK
.RES.W 50
Creates a stack section
char stack[100] __attribute__ ((section ("STACK"))) = { 0 };
main()
{
      /* Initialize stack pointer */
      init_sp (stack + sizeof (stack));
}

 
#pragma section [{<name> | <numeric value>}]
#pragma abs8 section [{<name> | <numeric value>}]
#pragma abs16 section [{<name> | <numeric value>}]
#pragma indirect section [{<name> | <numeric value>}]
Pragma is not available but the functionality can be achieved using 
__attribute__ ((section(“<section name>”))) 
For e.g:
extern void foobar (void) __attribute__ ((section ("bar")));


Alternatively, this can be achieved using the linker script. In section definition, the contents of an output section can be specified by listing particular input files, listing particular input-file sections, or combination of the two.
Please refer Q2 in "FAQ.html" for more on linker scripts.

#pragma asm <assembly-language instruction string>
#pragma endasm
Asm(<assembly-language instruction string>);
#pragma regsave
#pragma noregsave
__attribute__ ((saveall))

For more information on the above compiler directives, please refer to the gcc manual.

Intrinsic Functions


Renesas Intrinsic functions Equivalent GCC inline code

void and_ccr(unsigned char mask)

asm ("andc.b %0,ccr"::"g"(mask))
Please replace occurrence of and_ccr(mask) with above.

void and_exr(unsigned char mask)

asm ("andc.b %0l,exr"::"r"(mask))
Please replace occurance of and_exr(mask) with above. This is available for H8S and H8SX only.

void dadd(unsigned char size, char *ptr1,
	char *ptr2, char *rst)
extern __inline__ void dadd(unsigned char size, char *ptr1, char *ptr2, char *rst)
{
      asm ("mov.b %0l,r4l"::"r"(size):"r4");
#if defined __H8300__ || defined __NORMAL_MODE__
      asm ("mov.w %0,r3"::"r"(ptr1):"r3");
      asm ("mov.w %0,r5"::"r"(ptr2):"r5");
      asm ("mov.w %0,r1"::"r"(rst):"r1");
      asm ("andc #0xde:8, ccr\n"
	"0:\n\t"
	"mov.b @r3+, r0l\n\t "
	"mov.b @r5+, r2l\n\t "
	"addx.b r2l, r0l\n\t"
	"daa r0l\n\t"
	"mov.b r0l,@r1\n\t"
	"adds #1,r1\n\t"
	"dec.b r4l\n\t"
	"bne 0b\n\t"
	);
#else
      asm ("mov.l %0,er3"::"r"(ptr1):"er3");
      asm ("mov.l %0,er5"::"r"(ptr2):"er5");
      asm ("mov.l %0,er1"::"r"(rst):"er1");
      asm ("andc #0xde:8, ccr\n"
	"0:\n\t"
	"mov.b @er3+, r0l\n\t "
	"mov.b @er5+, r2l\n\t "
	"addx.b r2l, r0l\n\t"
	"daa r0l\n\t"
	"mov.b r0l,@er1\n\t"
	"inc.l #1,er1\n\t"
	"dec.b r4l\n\t"
	"bne 0b\n\t"
	);
#endif
}
 
void eepmov(char *source, char *dest,
	unsigned char count)

void eepmov(char *source, char *dest,
	unsigned int count)
extern __inline__ void eepmov(char *src, char *dest, unsigned char count)
{
      asm("mov.b %0l,r4l"::"r"(count):"r4");
      asm("extu.w r4");
#if defined __H8300__ || defined __NORMAL_MODE__
      asm("mov.w %0,r5"::"r"(src):"r5");
      asm("push r6");
      asm("mov.w %0,r6"::"r"(dest):"r6");
      asm("eepmov");
      asm("pop r6");
#else
      asm("mov.l %0,er5"::"r"(src):"er5");
      asm("push er6");
      asm("mov.l %0,er6"::"r"(dest):"er6");
      asm("eepmov");
      asm("pop er6");
#endif
}

void dsub (unsigned char size, char *ptr1,
	char *ptr2, char *rst)
extern __inline__ void dsub(unsigned char size, char *ptr1, char *ptr2, char *rst)
{
      asm ("mov.b %0l,r4l"::"r"(size):"r4");
#if defined __H8300__ || defined __NORMAL_MODE__
      asm ("mov.w %0,r3"::"r"(ptr1):"r3");
      asm ("mov.w %0,r5"::"r"(ptr2):"r5");
      asm ("mov.w %0,r1"::"r"(rst):"r1");
      asm ("andc #0xde:8, ccr\n"
	"0: \n\t"
	"mov.b @r3+, r0l\n\t "
	"mov.b @r5+, r2l\n\t "
	"subx.b r2l, r0l\n\t"
	"das r0l\n\t"
	"mov.b r0l,@r1\n\t"
	"adds #1,r1\n\t"
	"dec.b r4l\n\t"
	"bne 0b \n\t"
	);
#else
      asm ("mov.l %0,er3"::"r"(ptr1):"er3");
      asm ("mov.l %0,er5"::"r"(ptr2):"er5");
      asm ("mov.l %0,er1"::"r"(rst):"er1");
      asm ("andc #0de, ccr\n"
	"0: \n\t"
	"mov.b @er3+, r0l\n\t "
	"mov.b @er5+, r2l\n\t "
	"subx.b r2l, r0l\n\t"
	"das r0l\n\t"
	"mov.b r0l,@er1\n\t"
	"inc.l #1,er1\n\t"
	"dec.b r4l\n\t"
	"bne 0b\n\t"
	);
#endif
}
 
unsigned char get_imask_ccr(void)
extern __inline__ unsigned char get_imask_ccr(void)
{
      unsigned char imask;
      asm("stc ccr,r0l":::"r0");
      asm("and.b #0x80,r0l");
      asm("rotl.b r0l");
      asm("mov.b r0l, %0l":"=g"(imask));
      return(imask);
}
 
unsigned char get_imask_exr(void)
extern __inline__ unsigned char get_imask_exr(void)
{
      unsigned char imask;
      asm("stc exr,r0l":::"r0");
      asm("and.b #0x07,r0l");
      asm("mov.b r0l, %0l":"=g"(imask));
      return(imask);
}
This is available for H8S and H8SX only.
void mac(long val, int *ptr1, int *ptr2,
	unsigned long count)
extern __inline__ void mac(long val, int *ptr1, int *ptr2, unsigned long count)
{
      asm ("mov.l %0,er2"::"g"(count):"er2");
      asm ("mov.l %0,er3"::"g"(ptr1):"er3");
      asm ("mov.l %0,er0"::"g"(ptr2):"er0");
      asm ("mov.l %0,er1"::"g"(val):"er1");
      asm ("clrmac");
      asm ("ldmac er1,macl");
      asm ("mov.l er2,er2\n\t"
	"beq 1f\n"
	"0:\n\t"
	"mac @er0+,@er3+\n\t"
	"dec.l #1,er2\n\t"
	"bne 0b\n"
	"1:\n\t"
	);
      asm ("stmac macl,er2");
}
This is available for H8S and H8SX only
macl(long, int*, int*, unsigned long, unsigned long)
Under Process
void nop(void)
extern __inline__ void nop(void)
{
      asm ("nop");
}
void or_ccr(unsigned char mask)
asm ("orc.b %0,ccr"::"g"(mask))

Please replace occurrence of or_ccr(mask) with above.

void or_exr(unsigned char mask)
asm ("orc.b %0,exr"::"r"(mask))

Please replace occurance of or_exr(mask) with above. This is available for H8S and H8SX only.

unsigned char get_ccr(void)
extern __inline__ unsigned char get_ccr(void)
{
      unsigned char ccr_val;
      asm("stc ccr,r0l":::"r0");
      asm("mov.b r0l, %0l":"=g"(ccr_val));
      return(ccr_val);
}
unsigned char get_exr(void)
extern __inline__ unsigned char get_exr(void)
{
      unsigned char exr_val;
      asm("stc exr,r0l":::"r0");
      asm("mov.b r0l, %0l":"=g"(exr_val));
      return(exr_val);
}

This is available for H8S and H8SX only

char rotlc(int count, char data)
int rotlw(int count, int data)
long rotll(int count, long data)

char rotrc(int count, char data)
int rotrw(int count, int data)
long rotrl(int count, long data)
extern __inline__ int rotlw(int count, int data)
{
      int ires;
      asm("mov.w %0,r0"::"r"(count):"r0");
      asm("mov.w %0,r1"::"r"(data):"r1");
      asm("mov.w r0, r0");
      asm("beq 1f\n"
	" 0:\n\t"
	"rotl.w r1\n\t"
	"dec.w #1, r0\n\t"
	"bne 0b\n"
	"1:"
	);
      asm("mov.w r1, %0":"=g"(ires));
      return(ires);
}
 
void set_imask_ccr(unsigned char mask)
extern __inline__ void set_imask_ccr(unsigned char mask)
{
      if(mask==1)   
	asm("orc.b #0x80, ccr");
      else
	asm("andc.b #0x7f, ccr");
}
 
void set_imask_exr(unsigned char mask)
extern __inline__ void set_imask_exr(unsigned char mask)
{
      switch(mask)
      {
	case 0 : asm("andc.b #0xf8, exr");
	      break;
	case 7 : asm("orc.b #0x07, exr");
	      break;
	default : asm("stc exr,r0h");
	      asm("and.b #0xf8, r0h");
	      asm("mov %0l, r0l"::"r"(mask));
	      asm("or.b r0l,r0h");
	      asm("ldc r0h,exr");
	      break;
      }
}

This is available for H8S and H8SX only.

void sleep(void)
extern __inline__ void sleep(void)
{
      asm("sleep");
}
void tas(char *addr)
extern __inline__ void tas(char *addr)
{
      asm("mov.l %0, er1"::"r"(addr):"er1");
      asm("tas @er1");
}

This is available only for H8S.
 

void trapa(unsigned int trap_no)
asm ("trapa %0"::"g"(trap_no))

Please replace occurance of trapa(trap_no) with above.
 

void set_ccr(unsigned char value)
extern __inline__ void set_ccr(unsigned char value)
{
      asm("mov.b %0l,r0l"::"r"(value):"r0");
      asm("ldc r0l, ccr");
}
 
void set_exr(unsigned char value)
extern __inline__ void set_exr(unsigned char value)
{
      asm("mov.b %0l,r0l"::"r"(value):"r0");
      asm("ldc r0l, exr");
}

This is available for H8S and H8SX only.

void xor_ccr(unsigned char mask)
asm("xorc.b %0,ccr"::"g"(mask))

Please replace occurrence of xor_ccr(mask) with above.
 

void xor_exr(unsigned char value)
asm("xorc.b %0,exr"::"g"(value));

Please replace occurance of xor_exr(mask) with above. This is available for H8S and H8SX only.

int ovfaddc(char dst, char src, char *rst)
int ovfadduc(unsigned char dst,
	unsigned char src, unsigned char *rst)
int ovfaddw(int dst, int src, int *rst)
int ovfadduw(unsigned int dst,
	unsigned int src, unsigned int *rst)
int ovfaddl(long dst, long src, long *rst)
int ovfaddul(unsigned long dst,
	unsigned long src, unsigned long *rst)
extern __inline__ int ovfaddw(int dst, int src, int *rst)
{
      asm ("mov.w %0, r0"::"r"(src):"r0");
      asm ("mov.w %0, r1"::"r"(dst)"r1");
      asm ("add.w r1, r0");
      asm ("stc ccr, r2l":::"r2");
      asm ("mov.w r0, @%0"::"r"(rst));
      asm ("ldc r2l, ccr");
}

similarly for ovfaddc, ovfadduc, ovfadduw, ovfaddl, ovfaddul
 

int ovfsubc(char dst, char src, char *rst)
int ovfsubuc(unsigned char dst, unsigned char src,
		 unsigned char *rst)
int ovfsubw(int dst, int src, int *rst)
int ovfsubuw(unsigned int dst, unsigned int src,
		unsigned int *rst)
int ovfsubl(long dst, long src, long *rst)
int ovfsubul(unsigned long dst, unsigned long src,
		unsigned long *rst)
extern __inline__ int ovfsubw(int dst, int src, int *rst)
{
      asm ("mov.w %0, r0"::"r"(src):"r0");
      asm ("mov.w %0, r1"::"r"(dst):"r1");
      asm ("sub.w r1, r0");
      asm ("stc ccr, r2l":::"r2");
      asm ("mov.w r0, @%0"::"r"(rst));
      asm ("ldc r2l, ccr");
}

similarly for ovfsubc, ovfsubuc, ovfsubuw, ovfsubl, ovfsubul
 

Int ovfshlluc(char dst, char *rst)
int ovfshlluw(int dst, int *rst)
int ovfshllul(long dst, long *rst)
extern __inline__ int ovfshllul(unsigned long dst, unsigned long *rst)
{
      asm ("mov.l %0, er1"::"r"(dst):"er1");
      asm ("shal.l er1");
      asm ("stc ccr, r2l":::"r2");
      asm ("mov.l er1, @%0"::"r"(rst));
      asm ("ldc r2l, ccr");
}

similarly for ovfshlluc and ovfshlluw
 

int ovfshalc(char dst, char *rst)
int ovfshalw(int dst, int *rst)
int ovfshall(long dst, long *rst)
extern __inline__ int ovfshalw(int dst, int *rst)
{
      asm ("mov.w %0, r0"::"r"(dst):"r0");
      asm ("shal.w r0");
      asm ("stc ccr, r1l":::"r1");
      asm ("mov.w r0, @%0"::"r"(rst));
      asm ("ldc r1l, ccr");
}

similarly for ovfshalc and ovfshall
 

int ovfnegc(char dst, char *rst)
int ovfnegw(int dst, int *rst)
int ovfnegl(long dst, long *rst)
extern __inline__ int ovfnegw(int dst, int *rst)
{
      asm ("mov.w %0, r0"::"r"(dst):"r0");
      asm ("not.w r0");
      asm ("add.w #1, r0");
      asm ("stc ccr, r1l":::"r1");
      asm ("mov.w r0, @%0"::"r"(rst));
      asm ("ldc r1l, ccr");
}

similarly for ovfnegc and ovfnegl
 

void movfpe(char *addr, char data)

Under Process

void movtpe(char data, char *addr)

Under Process


For more information on assembler constraints, please refer to the gcc manual.

For more information on assembler command line options, please refer to the as manual.


C/Math Library Functions


 

GNU C library namely Newlib is distributed under a free software license. Newlib supports various processors and architectures.

1.    Complete set of standard input/output functions.
2.    Float parameters support for math library.
3.    The library can be built with integer only support. This in turn reduces the load.

4.    Option is available to build the libraries with floating point support.
5.    A customizable math error handler matherr() is available.
6.    All the functions are reentrant.

 

Drawbacks Involved:

 

1.   malloc () is used in every stdio library functions.
2.   There is no support for low-level routines to connect to the target.

 

C library Math Functions only in Renesas:

 

No. Function
General Utilities (stddef.h)
1 offsetof

C library Math Functions only in GNU:

No. Function Description

Character type handling routines (ctype.h)

Please refer the http://sources.redhat.com/newlib/libc.html#SEC35 for more information on these routines.

1 Isascii ASCII character predicate
2 Toascii Control character predicate
3 Iswalnum Alphanumeric wide character test
4 Iswalpha Alphabetic wide character test
5 Iswcntrla Wide character cntrl test
6 Iswdigit Decimal digit wide character test
7 Iswgraph Graphic wide character test
8 Iswlower Lowercase wide character test
9 Iswprint Printable wide character test
10 Iswpunct Punctuation wide character test
11 Iswspace Wide character space test
12 Iswupper Uppercase wide character test
13 Iswxdigit Hexadecimal digit wide character test
14 Iswctype Extensible wide character test
15 Wctype Get wide character classification type
16 *Towlower Translate wide characters to lower case
17 *Towupper Translate wide characters to upper case
18 Towctrans Extensible wide character case mapping
19 Wctrans Get wide character translation type

No. Function Description

Mathematics Functions (math.h)

Please refer the http://sources.redhat.com/newlib/libm.html#SEC1 for more information on these routines.

1 acosh, acoshf Inverse hyperbolic cosine
2 asinh, asinhf Inverse hyperbolic sine
3 atanh, atanhf Inverse hyperbolic tangent
4 jN,jNf,yN,yNf Bessel functions
5 erf, erff, erfc, erfcf Error function
6 gamma, gammaf, lgamma, lgammaf, gamma_r, hypot, hypotf Distance from origin
7 isnan, isnanf, isinf, isinff, finite, finitef Test for exceptional numbers
8 remainder, remainderf Round and remainder
9 cbrt, cbrtf Cube root
10 copysign, copysignf Sign of y, magnitude of x
11 expm, expmf Exponential minus 1
12 ilogb, ilogbf Get exponent of floating point number
13 infinity, infinityf Representation of infinity
14 logp, logpf Log of 1 + x
15 Matherr Modifiable math error handler
16 nan, nanf Representation of infinity
17 nextafter, nextafterf Get next number
18 scalbn, scalbnf Scale by integer

No. Function Description

General Utilities (stdlib.h)

Please refer the http://sources.redhat.com/newlib/libc.html#SEC1 for more information on these routines.

1 Atexit Request execution of functions at program exit
2 Atoff String to double or float
3 Ecvt, ecvtf, fcvt, fcvtf Double or float to string
4 Gvcvt, gcvtf Format double or float as string
5 Ecvtbuf, fcvtbuf Double or float to string
6 __env_lock, __env_unlock Lock environ variable
7 Getenv Look up environment variable
8 Mallinfo, malloc_stats, mallopt Malloc support
9 __malloc_lock, __malloc_unlock Lock malloc pool
10 Mblen Minimal multibyte length function
11 Mbstowcs Minimal multibyte string to wide char converter
12 Mbtowc Minimal multibyte to wide char converter
13 Rand48, drand48, erand48, lrand48, nrand48, mrand48, jrand48, srand48, seed48, lcong48 Pseudo random number generators and initialization routines
14 Strtof String to double or float
15 System Execute command string
16 Wcstombs Minimal wide char string to multibyte string converter
17 Wctomb Minimal wide char to multibyte converter

No. Function Description

String and Memory routines (string.h)

Please refer the http://sources.redhat.com/newlib/libc.html#SEC109 for more information on these routines.

1 Bcmp Compare two memory areas
2 Bcopy Copy memory regions
3 Bzero Initialize memory to zero
4 Index Search for character in string
5 Memccpy Copy memory regions with end token check
6 Mempcpy Copy memory regions and return end pointer
7 Rindex Reverse search for character in string
8 Strcasecmp Case insensitive character string compare
9 Strlwr Force string to lower case
10 Strncasecmp Case insensitive character string compare
11 strtok_r,strsep Get next token from a string
12 Strupr Force string to uppercase
13 Swab Swap adjacent bytes

No. Function Description

Input/output routines (stdio.h)

Please refer the http://sources.redhat.com/newlib/libc.html#SEC67 for more information on these routines.

1 Fgetpos Record position in a stream or file
2 Fiprintf Format output to file (integer only)
3 Fdopen Turn open file into a stream
4 Freopen Open a file using an existing file descriptor
5 fseeko Set file position
6 Fsetpos Restore position of a stream or file
7 ftello Return position in a stream or file
8 Getw Read a word (int)
9 Iprintf Write formatted output (integer only)
10 mktemp, mkstemp Generate unused file name
11 Putw Write a word (int)
12 Remove Delete a file's name
13 Rename Rename a file
14 Setbuf Specify full buffering for a file or stream
15 Siprintf Write formatted output (integer only)
16 asprintf, snprintf Format output
17 Tmpfile Create a temporary file
18 Tmpnam, Name for a temporary file
Large file input / output:
19 Fopen64 Open a large file
20 Freopen64 Open a large file using an existing file descriptor
21 Ftello64 Return position in a stream or file
22 Fseeko64 Set file position for large file
23 Fgetpos64 Record position in a large stream or file
24 Fsetpos64 Restore position of a large stream or file
25 Tmpfile64 Create a large temporary file

 

                Along with all the above, following set of routines are provided in the newlib library:

1.    Wide character strings (wchar.h):
         Please refer http://sources.redhat.com/newlib/libc.html#SEC144

2.    Signal handling (signal.h):
         Please refer http://sources.redhat.com/newlib/libc.html#SEC169

3.    Time functions (time.h):
         Please refer http://sources.redhat.com/newlib/libc.html#SEC172

4.    Locale specific routines (locale.h):
         Please refer http://sources.redhat.com/newlib/libc.html#SEC183

Useful Links:

http://sources.redhat.com/newlib/libc.html
http://sources.redhat.com/newlib/libm.html

Assembly Programming


Renesas Assembler Directives GNU Assembler Directives
.AIF #if or .if
.AELSE #else or .else
.AENDI #endif or .endif
Sym_name: .ASSIGN value set sym_name , value
.ALIGN <boundary alignment value> .align abs-expr, abs-expr, abs-expr
.CPU targetcpu:bitwidth .h8300s
.h8300sn
.h8300h
.h8300hn
sym_name: .EQU value .equ sym_name , value
.EXPORT .global
.GLOBAL .global
.IMPORT sym_name .extern sym_name
Sym_name .RES.B 1 .size sym_name , 1
.sym_name: .byte initial_value
Sym_name .RES.L 1 .size sym_name , 4
.sym_name: .long initial_value
Sym_name .RES.W 1 .size sym_name, 2
.sym_name: .word initial_value
__2600N__
__2000N__
__300HN__
__NORMAL_MODE__
.section name , attribute
(attribute- CODE OR DATA OR STACK)
.section “ name” , “attributes”
H’ address 0x address
Sym_name: .SDATA “str” Sym_name: .string “str”

For more information on the above assembler directives, please refer to the as manual.

Inline Assembly Language


Using Inline Assembly Language :

We can instruct the compiler to insert the code of a function into the code of its callers, to the point where actually the call is to be made. Such functions are inline functions. This method of inlining reduces the function-call overhead. And if any of the actual argument values are constant, their known values may permit simplifications at compile time so that not all of the inline function’s code needs to be included. The effect on code size is less predictable, it depends on the particular case. To declare an inline function, we’ve to use the keyword inline in its declaration. Inline assembly is important primarily because of its ability to operate and make its output visible on C variables. Because of this capability, "asm" works as an interface between the assembly instructions and the "C" program that contains it.

 

Syntax


GCC, the GNU C Compiler for Linux, uses AT&T&sol;UNIX assembly syntax.

a) Source-Destination Ordering

The first operand is the source and the second operand is the destination. ie, "Op-code src dst".

This is similar to the syntax followed in Renesas.

b) Register Naming

Register names are prefixed by % ie, if r0 is to be used, write %r0.

c) Immediate Operand

Immediate operands are preceded by ’#’. For hexadecimal constants a ’0x’ is suffixed to the constant.

However, in order to support hexadecimal constants suffixed with a 'H', please pass ‘-h-tick-hex’ option to the

assembler.

e.g., Use the following command to build the “asm("mov #H'03,R0");” code statement,

$ h8300-elf-gcc test.c -Wa,-h-tick-hex

d) Operand Size

Size of memory operands is determined from the last character of the op-code name.

Op-code suffixes of ’b’, ’w’, and ’l’ specify byte(8-bit), word(16-bit), and long (32-bit) memory references.

e) Memory Operands

Base register is enclosed in ‘(’ and ’)’ and indirect memory reference is like

“section&colon;disp(base, index, scale)”. When a constant is used for disp and sol; scale, ’#’ shouldn’t

be prefixed.